Flea-induced skin sensitivities, arising from just one flea bite, are prevalent in cats. The flea's saliva may trigger an allergic reaction in some cats, producing a substance similar to histamine, which causes intense skin itchiness. This skin condition typically manifests on the cat's head, neck, and spine, often referred to as the "racing stripe" appearance on the skin.
An allergy is a result of prior contact with a potential irritant. When the immune system identifies this substance as unfamiliar, it might initiate a response. A flea bite might cause skin discomfort in your feline friend for up to a fortnight.
Besides flea sensitivities, cats can also show allergic reactions to external environmental factors like pollen, dust, mold, and shed skin cells or to certain food ingredients, mainly chicken and fish proteins found in many commercial cat foods. The skin manifestations and the pet's medical history help distinguish flea-induced sensitivities from food or environmental allergies.
Symptoms of Flea Allergy Dermatitis in Cats
When your feline shows signs of flea allergy dermatitis, you might observe reddened skin (erythema), ranging from slight to intense itchiness (pruritus), coupled with possible crust formations or tiny raised spots (papules). As a cat owner, you might witness your pet scratching more than usual and over-grooming. Hair thinning can also be a symptom, particularly around the head, neck, or back, and sometimes even on the belly and inner legs. Persistent itchiness and hair shedding in these areas often hint at flea allergy dermatitis.
Causes of Flea Allergy Dermatitis in Cats
Fleas transfer their saliva when feeding on cats, to which some felines may be allergic. Instead of a traditional bite, fleas employ a structure known as a proboscis to draw blood. The introduction of this saliva prompts the release of a substance akin to histamine and other inflammatory agents in the skin, leading to evident signs such as skin redness and itchiness. A single flea's touch can trigger these reactions in cats with this sensitivity.
Diagnoses Flea Allergy Dermatitis in Cats
When assessing flea allergy dermatitis, your vet will thoroughly examine your cat, regardless of whether there's a known history of fleas. Typically, additional tests aren't required to ascertain this condition.
While the presence of live fleas can be a telltale sign, their absence doesn't necessarily mean the condition isn't present. Fleas might momentarily hop onto your cat, deliver a bite, and quickly depart. Alternatively, your cat might address the discomfort by biting or licking the bitten area, inadvertently removing the pest.
The vet may search for live fleas or signs of their presence using a flea comb, like flea droppings. These droppings can resemble specks of pepper on your cat's fur and skin. Many cat owners mistakenly view them as mere dirt. When skin abnormalities, like bumps or hair thinning, couple with itchiness, especially near the tail's base, it often provides enough grounds for a tentative diagnosis of flea allergy.
Treatment of Flea Allergy Dermatitis in Cats
The primary objective of treatment is to curb the itchiness and address the flea issue both on your cat and in the surrounding environment. For moderate itchiness, readily available sprays containing hydrocortisone can be applied for a few days to manage the itch. However, avoiding using this spray on the cat's face or head is essential to prevent any harm to the eyes.
Treatment of Itching
If your cat is experiencing moderate to intense itching, prescription drugs like corticosteroids might be required. Available options include oral variants like prednisolone or injections such as methylprednisolone acetate, commonly recognized as Depo-Medrol. Given the challenge of administering daily tablets to many cats, injections often present a more convenient solution for pet owners. Intense scratching can escalate to skin infections, manifesting as tiny, elevated, reddish bumps, skin ulcers (sores), or scabs resulting from the scratching. Antibiotics are essential to address these skin infections, which a veterinarian can provide in either pill or injectable formats.
Recovery of Flea Allergy Dermatitis in Cats
Cats typically recuperate once fleas are effectively managed, though the itching can persist for up to two weeks.
Preventing Flea Allergy Dermatitis in Cats
Managing fleas is of paramount importance. Cats afflicted with flea allergy dermatitis can react significantly to minimal flea exposure. Both outdoor and indoor cats can be affected since fleas are ubiquitous in the environment. Consequently, year-round flea management is advocated for all household cats. In most US states, fleas thrive even during the colder months.
For superior flea management, spot-on and oral products are preferable. Meanwhile, shampoos and powders may not only be less effective but can also exacerbate skin irritations. Before deploying any flea mitigation products, seeking veterinary advice is crucial. Some canine-safe products can be hazardous for cats. Particularly, avoid using products containing permethrin on cats. Also, consider the age and weight of your feline when picking flea treatments.
Flea control options:
- Topicals: Frontline Plus, Advantage II, Effipro Plus, Cheristin (each has a 30-day efficacy).
- Collar: Seresto (remains effective for eight months).
- Oral: Capstar (used as required; can be administered daily; addresses active flea infestations but doesn't prevent them).
More Effective Treatment
- Topicals: Revolution (effective for 30 days; additionally counteracts heartworm and intestinal parasites), Bravecto (ensures 90-day protection).
- Oral: Credelio (provides 30-day protection).
It's essential to address both the indoor and outdoor environments in which the cat resides. Merely treating the cat while neglecting its habitat can perpetuate the flea life cycle, leading to a recurring issue. Vets can recommend indoor pet-safe products. To effectively halt the entire life cycle of fleas, employ products infused with an insect growth regulator (or IGR) – essential for eliminating flea eggs and larvae that can mature into adult fleas.